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Feb 28, 2012

how to say "calendar" in Hebrew


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לוּחַ שָׁנָה






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This term means calendar when speaking of a full calendar of twelve months. The term is לוּחַ שָׁנָה (LOO-ahkh shah-NAH), meaning literally, board of a year.


To mean daily planner, you'd use the word יוֹמָן (yoh-MAHN), from the word יוֹם (yohm) meaning day. יומן is also used to mean journal or diary.



To mean timetable, you'd use the term לוח זְמָנִים (LOO-ahkh zeh-mah-NEEM), literally, board of times. Israelis often abbreviate the term to לוּ"ז (looz).


Both יומן and לו"ז can mean schedule.



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Feb 27, 2012

how to say "nutrition" in Hebrew


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תְּזוּנָה



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תזונתי?
photo by MartíApunts
The Hebrew word for contribution or donation is תְּרוּמָה (teh-roo-MAH). The original root of this word, contrary to one's first intuition, is ר.ו.מ (r.w.m) meaning height. The ת (t) at the beginning takes the concept of height and creates a word meaning, that which is raised up towards a greater cause. Using the Biblical noun תרומה, Mishnaic Hebrew generated a verb meaning to raise up towards a greater cause... or to donate - לִתְרוֹם (leet-ROHM); thus another root - a super-root - was born, ת.ר.מ (t.r.m).


The makers of Modern Hebrew applied this process of using a root whose middle letter is ו (w) to create a word for the relatively new scientific concept of nutrition - תְּזוּנָה (teh-zoo-NAH). The original root of this word is ז.ו.נ (z.w.n), meaning sustenance, as in the name of the Jewish Grace after Meals - literally, the blessing of the food - בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן (beer-KAHT hah-mah-ZOHN).


It could also be said that תזונה takes the more everyday concept of food - מָזוֹן (mah-ZOHN) - and makes it more abstract and scientific with the word תזונה, nutrition.


Nutritious is תְּזוּנָתִי (teh-zoo-nah-TEE).


Feb 26, 2012

how to say "to train" (a dog) in Hebrew


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לְאַלֵּף




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Last week I introduced the Hebrew word for studio - אֻלְפָּן (ool-PAHN). I explained that it comes from the root א.ל.פ (a.l.p) which, in Aramaic, means teaching.


Likewise, the word for to train an animal is לְאַלֵּף (leh-ah-LEF), an active-intensive פיעל verb. For example, דָּוִד מִסְתּוֹבֵב בְּרַחֲבֵי הָאָרֶץ וּמְאַלֵּף כְּלָבִים (dah-VEED mees-toh-VEV beh-rah-khah-VEH-ee hah-AH-rets oo-meh-ah-LEF keh-lah-VEEM) - David (my friend, the professional dog trainer) goes around Israel training dogs (here's his website).


But note - לאלף means to train only in the context of animals. So please don't tell your potential male employee, אֲנִי צָרִיךְ לְאַלֵּף אֹתְך (ah-NEE tsah-REEKH leh-ah-LEF oh-teh-KHAH). Rather, you'd use לְאַמֵּן (leh-ah-MEN) or לְהַכְשִׁיר (leh-hahkh-SHEER).


David Sidman, Professional Dog Trainer

Feb 24, 2012

how to say "to recruit" in Hebrew


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לְגַיֵּס, לִרְתּוֹם 


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Suppose you need to recruit people to volunteer to say, give blood... or to donate towards the establishment of a magnificent spiritual center, as it happens in the Torah portion to be read tomorrow by Jews around the world. In Hebrew, there are two words that come to my mind to express this concept of to recruit:


לְגַיֵּס (leh-gah-YES)
This active-intensive פיעל verb is related to couple slightly more familiar word, especially to those who have served in the Israeli army or their loved ones: לְהִתְגַּיֵּס (leh-heet-gah-YES) - to be drafted/recruited, and גִּיּוּס (ghee-YOOS) - a draft/recruitment.


לִרְתּוֹם (leer-TOHM)
This active פעל verb also means to hitch an animal. Likewise, by recruiting someone, you're hitching them to your cause. The person can also recruit themselves - or enlist oneself to a cause. The verb in that case is in the נפעל form: לְהֵרָתֵם (leh-HEH-rah-TEM). For example, הַבָּחוּרָה נִרְתְּמָה לָעִנְיָן הַחָשׁוּב הַזֶּה (hah-bah-khoo-RAH neer-teh-MAH lah-een-YAHN hah-khah-SHOOV hah-ZEH) - the young woman enlisted to this important matter.


For those wondering, לרתום is not related to the word תְּרוּמָה (teh-roo-MAH) - donation. The ת (t) on that word is not part of the original root anyway.


שבת שלום וסוף שבוע נעים לכולם!
Shabbat Shalom and a pleasant weekend to all!



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Feb 22, 2012

how to say "unless" in Hebrew


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אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן



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Some parts of speech have very clear translations from one language to another. For example, a noun such as tree has a clear equivalent in all languages with Hebrew being no exception: עֵץ (ets). Likewise, the verb לְהַזְמִין (leh-hahz-MEEN) means to invite or to order.
by Neta Bartal


Other parts of speech become a bit more tricky to translate. Take, for example, the prepositional prefix -ב (beh). In some contexts it means in, while in other contexts it means with, and still others it means by means of.


And take conjunctions. Some translate nicely, such as the word אָבָל (ah-VAHL) meaning but, and the prefix -ו (veh), meaning and. But others are a bit clumsy - such as today's dose of Hebrew, the Hebrew phrase meaning unless - אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן (EH-lah eem ken).


אלא אם כן - sometimes abbreviated as אא"כ - means, literally, rather if so. Truth is, the English word unless is also composed of two distinct parts - un and lessאלא אם כן appears in Mishnaic Hebrew.


Here's an example of this phrase's usage: נִסַּע מָחָר לְגַן הַחַיּוֹת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵרֵד גֶּשֶׁם (nee-SAH mah-KHAHR leh-GAHN hah-khah-YOHT, EH-lah eem ken yeh-RED GHEH-shem) - We'll go (travel) tomorrow to the zoo, unless it'll rain.



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Feb 21, 2012

corrected links for last post on "useful"



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שִׁמּוּשִׁי



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If you're conversant in Hebrew, you most likely know the Hebrew word for to use something - לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּש (leh-heesh-tah-MESH), as in הִיא מִשְׁתַּמֶּשֶׁת בָּעֵט עַכְשָׁו (hee meesh-tah-MEH-shet bah-ET ahkh-SHAHV) - she is using the pen now


The root is ש.מ.ש (sh.m.sh), meaning use, appearing most prominently in Mishnaic Hebrew.


To express, this pen has many uses or purposes, you'd say, לָעֵט הַזֶּה יֵשׁ הַרְבֶּה שִׁמּוּשִֹים (lah-ET hah-ZEH yesh hahr-BEH shee-moo-SHEEM). Likewise, something useful is שִׁמּוּשִׁי (shee-moo-SHEE), and something multi-purpose is רַב-שימושי (rahv shee-moo-SHEE).





how to say "useful" in Hebrew


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שִׁמּוּשִׁי



 Level 4 Hebrew course 
opening in Tel Aviv this Sunday!



If you're conversant in Hebrew, you most likely know the Hebrew word for to use something - לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּש (leh-heesh-tah-MESH), as in הִיא מִשְׁתַּמֶּשֶׁת בָּעֵט עַכְשָׁו (hee meesh-tah-MEH-shet bah-ET ahkh-SHAHV) - she is using the pen now


The root is ש.מ.ש (sh.m.sh), meaning use, appearing most prominently in Mishnaic Hebrew.


To express, this pen has many uses or purposes, you'd say, לָעֵט הַזֶּה יֵשׁ הַרְבֶּה שִׁמּוּשִֹים (lah-ET hah-ZEH yesh hahr-BEH shee-moo-SHEEM). Likewise, something useful is שִׁמּוּשִׁי (shee-moo-SHEE), and something multi-purpose is רַב-שימושי (rahv shee-moo-SHEE).





Feb 20, 2012

how to say "studio" in Hebrew


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אֻלְפָּן


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To foreigners visiting or living in Israel, an אֻלְפָּן (ool-PAHN) - an ulpan - is an Hebrew language school.


But to Israeli natives, an אולפן is, first and foremost a studio - the kind where broadcasting and recording takes place. You're likely to hear the word on Israeli radio all the time... they're not talking about immigration to Israel, but rather about the physical space they are inhabiting as they deliver messages to you across the sound waves.
Yes, it's still winter in Israel.
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Today I called one of the printers I've recently begun working with to sum up an order of workbooks for our Level 4 class in Jerusalem. He asked me, בְּאֵיזֶה עֶסֶק אַתָּה (beh-EH-ee-zeh EH-sek ah-TAH) - what business are you in? I answered him, אולפן - to which he replied, אֶפְשָׁר לָבֹא אֵלֶיךָ לָאֻלְפַּן לָשִׁיר (ef-SHAHR lah-VOH eh-ee-LEH-khah lah-ool-PAHN lah-SHEER) - may I come to your Ulpan to sing?


It's a conversation that could take place only in Israel.


The root of אולפן is א.ל.פ (a.l.p), an Aramaic (a sister language of Hebrew) root meaning to teach. Hence, both studio (related to the English verb to study) and Hebrew language school.




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how to say "to become" in Hebrew


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לִהְיוֹת לְ...



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There is no one-to-one translation of to become into Hebrew. Here are instead several options to express it, each with a slightly different connotation.


1. ...לִהְיוֹת ל (lee-h-YOHT leh...) - literally, to be to... This the most literary form, the one found in the Bible. להיות is the simple פעל verb, to be.


הַכְּלַבְלָב יַהֲפוֹךְ לְכֶלֶב גָּדוֹל.
(hah-keh-lahv-LAHV yah-hah-FOHKH
leh-KHEH-lev gah-DOHL)
The puppy will become a big dog.
2. לְהֵעָשׂוֹת (leh-heh-ah-SOHT) - literally, to be done. For example, הָעֶבֶד שֻׁחְרָר וְנַעֲשָׂה בֶּן חֹרִין (hah-EH-ved shookh-RAHR veh-nah-ah-SAH ben khoh-REEN) - the slave was freed and became a free person. להיעשות is a verb of the נפעל variety.


3. לֵהָיוֹת (leh-hah-YOHT) - a passive form of to be. Truth is, I've never seen or heard this form in the infinitive, so I'm approximating what it sounds like. An example of this נפעל verb conjugated in everyday speech is הַיַּלְדָּה נִהְיְתָה גְּבֶרֶת (hah-yahl-DAH nee-heh-yeh-TAH gheh-VEH-ret) - the girl became a woman.


The usages of 2 and 3 are practically identical and are the most common ways  of expressing to become in spoken Hebrew in the past and present tenses.


4. ...לַהֲפוֹךְ ל (lah-hah-FOHKH leh...) - to turn (in)to... For example, עוֹד מְעַט הַשֶּׁלֶג יַהֲפוֹךְ לְמַיִם (ohd meh-AHT hah-SHEH-leg yah-hah-FOHKH leh-MAH-yeem) - soon the snow will turn into water. Use this one to express to turn into the way you would in English.


5. ...לַהֲפוֹךְ לִהְיוֹת (lah-hah-FOHKH lee-heh-YOHT) - like 4, this also means to turn into, but literally it's to turn (in)to being... This is a more widely used version of the slightly more literary להפוך ל.


4 and 5 are the most common ways of expressing to become in the future tense. They are simple פעל verbs.




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Feb 16, 2012

how to say "judgmental" in Hebrew


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שִׁפּוּטִי





The Torah portion to be read this Shabbat by Jews around the world is called מִשְׁפָּטִים (meesh-pah-TEEM), literally, ordinances or rules. The root of this word is שׁ.פ.ט (sh.p.t), meaning judgment


To judge, in both the legalistic sense and in the interpersonal sense, is לִשְׁפּוֹט (leesh-POHT), while a שׁוֹפֵט (shoh-FET) is a judge (when a male). The Biblical story of Moses and the Israelite slaves expresses both senses of to judge in the phrase, מִי שָׂמְךָ לְאִישׁ שָׂר וְשׁוֹפֵט עָלֵינו (mee sah-meh-KHAH leh-EESH sahr veh-shoh-FET ah-LEH-ee-noo) - who placed you as a minister and judge upon us? The Israelite slaves in that passage are referring to Moses as a judge as well as a man being judgmental.


The Modern Hebrew word for judgmental is שִׁפּוּטִי (shee-poo-TEE). Likewise, nonjudgmental is simply לֹא שִׁפּוּטִי (loh shee-poo-TEE).


Oftentimes a judge, a שופט, is needed... and we all have a שופט or שׁוֹפֶטֶת (shoh-FEH-tet - the feminine form) within us. But the general approach of being לא שיפוטי is what makes relationships blossom... and, with שִׁפּוּטִיּוּת  (shee-poo-tee-YOOT) - judgmentalism - restricted to the legal realm - makes the world a better place.


שבת שלום, וסוף שבוע נעים לכולם!
Shabbat Shalom, and a pleasant weekend to all!




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2012 Course Calendars! (using Google) 
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